Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

The World As We Know It

Founded in 1830 to promote the advancement of geographical sciences, the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is today a 16,000-member professional organization. Since its beginning as a dinner club where informal scientific debates took place, the Society has been home to notable scientists, geographers and explorers who’ve helped understand and map the world as we know it.

Thorough its history, the Society has successfully advocated for the inclusion of geography in schools and universities, and served as an information exchange for geographers, explorers, soldiers, administrators and naturalists, providing intelligence for academic and state endeavors.

Royal Geographical Society, Lowther Lodge. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

Primary Source Maps and Charts Dating Back to the 1400s

With parts I & II spanning 1482-1899 and 1900-2010 respectively, the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) digital archive contains more than 150,000 maps, charts and atlases complemented by manuscripts, field notes, expedition reports, scrapbooks, correspondence, diaries, illustrations,  and sketches.

The archive is representative of the world’s largest private collection of maps and charts, along with atlases, globes, world gazetteers, and original manuscript mapping dating back to the 1400s that is held in the Society building in London. Some of the most influential geographers of the last two centuries have contributed to the collection.

Notable RGS members and contributors whose works can be found in this archive include Gertrude Bell, John Hanning Speke, David Livingstone, Robert Falcon Scott, Richard Francis Burton, Ernest Shackleton, and Edmund Hillary.

Countries of the Jidda, Jeelé, Liban, Adda, Choré, Wata, Wargi, Arusi and Koreyu Gallas. Alfred E. Pease's Road Map, 1901. Map, n.d. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)
  • Plan of the Town and Fortifications of Ceuta in Africa. Map, 1813. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    RGS Part I


    Highlights include:

    • 15,000 lantern slides
    • Collections on colonization, including the ‘Scramble for Africa’
    • Historic climate data
    • Extensive mapping related to the British Empire
  • Frost Map of the Union of South Africa. Pretoria: Surveyor General's Office, 1922. Scale 1:8,000,000. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    RGS Part II


    Highlights include:

    • Primary source materials on polar and desert expeditions
    • The Everest collection
    • Materials on de-colonization
    • Fellowship certificates

Subjects and Themes

  • Agricultural Geography
  • Anthropology
  • Cartography
  • Borders, Nations & Power
  • Colonial, Post-Colonial & De-Colonization Studies
  • Development Studies
  • Earth Sciences
  • Environmental History
  • Ethnography
  • Geography
  • Geology
  • Geopolitics
  • Historical Geography
  • International Law, Trade & Policy
  • International Relations
  • Meteorology
  • Physical Geography
  • Resources & Land Use
  • Urban Studies

Primary Source Materials

  • Charts & Plans
  • Expedition Reports & Scrapbooks
  • Fieldnotes, Correspondence, Diaries & Personal Papers
  • Fellowship Certificates
  • Gray Literature
  • Illustrations, Sketches & Drawings
  • Journal Manuscripts
  • Maps, Manuscript Maps, Gazetteers & Atlases
  • Monographs
  • Photographs, Lantern Slides & Artwork
  • Proceedings & Lectures


  • Sketch of the Victoria Falls. David Livingstone, RGS Images Online, 01/01/1860. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    David Livingstone and his Search for the Source of the Nile

    David Livingstone was a Scottish physician, anti-slavery crusader and Christian missionary with a passion for exploring Africa and a mission to learn the sources of the Nile River. He believed that discovering the source of the Nile would give him the influence he needed to end slave trade, and replace it with legitimate commerce, during this active period of colonial expansion.

    The Society sponsored three of Livingstone expeditions. In 1858, he and a modest crew set out on the Zambezi Expedition to examine the natural resources of southeastern Africa. The botanical specimens and ethnographical knowledge obtained in the journey proved valuable over time.

    Livingstone is credited for creating some of the first 19th century maps of Africa, many of which reside in this digital archive.

  • Edmund Hillary after his successful attempt on Everest. George Band, RGS Images Online, 5/28/1953. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    Destination: Everest

    The allure of Mount Everest has long beckoned explorers and adventurers to its majestic peaks—and taken many lives in that elusive quest.

    The archive collection provides intimate insights into the journeys of scientists and geographers, beginning with the first British expedition in 1921 through the 32 years of attempts that followed, with each failed endeavor providing a little more knowledge to fuel subsequent expeditions.

    Success finally came in 1953, when two climbing teams embarked upon the ninth Everest expedition, following the South Col path. Although equipment failure cut one team’s climb short, on May 29, 1953, aided by standard oxygen equipment and sheer willpower, Edmund Hillary became the first person to step foot on Mount Everest’s summit, followed closely by climbing partner Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali-Indian Sherpa mountaineer. Although they only spent about 15 minutes at the summit, their achievement has had lasting impact.

  • Letter from Gertrude Bell. Gertrude Bell, RGS Images Online, 4/12/1915. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    Gertrude Bell Defies the Odds—as an Explorer and Political Force

    By anyone’s standards, Gertrude Bell defied the odds—as a female explorer and political influencer. Her extensive travel throughout the Middle East, in combination with her detailed expedition reports, writings and photos, gave many Westerners a window into the Arabian world for the very first time.

    This work, in combination with her intimate knowledge of Middle Eastern terrain and its indigenous population, were instrumental in shaping British imperial policy in the region in the early 20th century, making her the only woman exercising such significant political power throughout the critical years of World War I.

    You can find out more about Bell’s fascinating work as part of the digital archive, alongside rich materials about other groundbreaking female explorers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • Sketch of the Northern Part of Africa: Exhibiting the Geographical Information Collected by the African Association. Map, 1790. Source: Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)

    Maps and Colonialism in Africa

    For centuries, Africa was the target of missionaries, scientists and governments alike. Although these entities had different agendas, from spreading Christianity to colonializing the continent, each discussion of this vast terrain involved a map.

    The Society emerged as an information source for all of these groups, with its extensive map room acting as a frequent source of information for the British military. This map collection is now available digitally through this archive.

Advisory Board

  • Wade Davis

    Professor of Anthropology

    University of British Columbia

  • Felix Driver

    Professor of Human Geography

    Royal Holloway, University of London

  • Mona Domosh

    Professor of Geography

    Dartmouth College

  • Alison Blunt

    Professor of Geography

    Queen Mary University of London

  • David Lambert

    Professor of History

    University of Warwick

What people are saying

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    Ann-Marie Richardson

    PhD Candidate AHRC North West Consortium Funded Researcher with The Royal Society

    Lancaster University

  • "The Wiley Digital Archives interface is seamless and has a crisp, clean look. Clutter is a distracting feature of many databases, so it was enjoyable to smoothly browse these archives without running into interruptions, rather focusing on the substance. The content is incredible and can add enormous value to my research work in the history and evolution of healthcare."

    Tommy Flynn

    RN, CPNP-AC | Ph.D. Candidate, Nursing

    Emory University

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    Dr. Catherine Nichols

    Department of Anthropology and Center for Textual Studies and Digital Humanities

    Loyola University Chicago

  • “The WDA platform is a wonderful resource, bringing together numerous collections and enabling cross-referencing across multiple archives.”

    Mobeen Hussain

    co-Editor in Chief--Doing History in Public

    PhD Candidate, World History--University of Cambridge

  • “The search functions in Wiley Digital Archives are particularly good for the type of research I do. I can cross-reference my current inventories of Livingstone’s mentions of the word “women” very quickly, and the horizontality of the search process enables me to happen upon other works of interest that I might not have found otherwise. The malleability of this search function, in combination with the quality of the Wiley’s OCR, has facilitated fast, comprehensive data access—and underscores the value that these records can bring to the understanding of the socio-cultural makeup of exploration.“

    Dr. Kathryn Simpson


    University of Glasgow

  • “Wiley Digital Archives are always available, so there are no time limitations. Just as important, it opens the access to Society Archives to independent scholars or researchers at schools that don’t have the funding for extensive travel.”

    Sarah M. Pickman

    Ph.D. Candidate—History of Science and Medicine Program

    Yale University

  • “The RAI’s archive is the unique repository of Arthur Bernard Deacon’s original reproductions, which have been included by UNESCO in the Memory of the World Register in 2013.”

    Jacopo Baron

    PhD Candidate Doctoral School of Social Anthropology and Ethnology

    EHESS of Paris

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    Center for Research Libraries

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